How does mRNA work in a human body?

mRNA vaccine consists of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) wrapped with messenger RNA (mRNA) encoded viral antigens. When we inoculate the mRNA vaccine, the mRNA will translate into viral proteins, and these viral antigens will further induce the immune response in our bodies.



Why do we need an mRNA vaccine?

Compared with traditional vaccines, the significant advantages of mRNA vaccines are safe and efficient production. In 2005, Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman published their research on introducing mRNA into human cells without setting off the cellular immune responses. They licensed the intellectual property to BioNTech, and the evolutionary technique helped pave the way for mRNA vaccine development.


mRNA vaccine does not contain live pathogens so that the vaccine is non-infectious. Besides, since there is no viral culture step during manufacture, the biosafety risk is low, and the large-scale manufacture can be much faster than the traditional vaccine.


In December 2019, the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 burst out in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread worldwide. A few months later, the infection cases in Europe and American climbed rapidly. Almost all over the world locked down their country at once. There were no effective treatments or anti-viral drugs for the disease, resulting in many severe cases and fatalities. Thousands of patients crowded the hospitals desperately for ventilators and beds. Soon, the medical system of many countries collapsed. At this very moment, the advantages of the mRNA vaccine showed us the silver lining on the clouds. Manufacturing mRNA vaccines is rapid and safe so that the pharmaceutical company can respond quickly to the pandemic and carry out clinical trials. Once the vaccine is approved by the emergency use authorization (EUA) authority, people can start to administrate the vaccine.



Different types of COVID-19 vaccines


mRNA Vaccine

Viral Vector Vaccine

Inactivated Vaccine

Production Time






Potential Hazrds

Potential Hazrds

Immune Response

T-Cells & Antibodies

T-Cells & Antibodies

Mostly Antibodies 
 Flexibility Replacement the Sequence for a New Vaccine  Replacement the Sequence for a New Vaccine   Requiring New Design for Production Processes
 Scale-Up Easy  Easy  Requiring Several Processes 
 First Introduced 2020 (SARS-CoV-2)  2019 (Ebola)  1896 (Typhoid) 
COVID-19 Vaccine Product BioNTech/Pfizer/Moderna



COVID-19 Vaccine Storage 
  • BioNTech/Pfizer:
    -70°C, 6 Months
    -20°C, 2 Weeks
    2-8°C, 30 Days
  • Moderna:

    -20°C, 6 Months

    2-8°C, 30 Days

    • Oxford/AstraZeneca:
      2-8°C, 6 Months
    • Sputnik:
      2-8°C, 6 Months
  • Jassen/J&J:
    2-8°C, 3 Months
    • SinoVac:
  • Covaxin:
    2-8°C, 6 Months



 Source: LaPipette Labs:

bnt pfizer az sinovac




The promising RNA vaccines in development

The COVID-19 vaccines have set a new benchmark, and various RNA vaccines are springing up, such as self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) and endless RNA (eRNA). saRNA contains RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and has the ability to self-amplify. And eRNA is a circular RNA without a starting point or an endpoint. Therefore, eRNA is not easy to become a target of cellular RNase and is much more stable in the human body.



Leadgene Biomedical gears to provide comprehensive mRNA vaccine materials

Leadgene Biomedical gathers scientists having expertise in various fields. We provide high-quality antibody-related products and IVD raw materials. After the pandemic, we steadily grow and extend our market to mRNA vaccine materials and molecular diagnosis raw materials. To offer excellent raw materials to our clients, we value the quality of our products. We establish an ISO13485 and GMP certified plant to manufacture and manage our products. Our profession lies in our attention to detail. Our commitment is to promote the development of the biomedical industry by which reaches the vision of a healthy and sustainable human society. We will vigorously pursue innovation and contribute to the world.






  1. Anna Blakney. 2021. The Next Generation of RNA Vaccines: Self-Amplifying RNA.
  2. Laronde. 2021. Laronde Attracts $440M in First External Financing to Further Advance Endless RNA™ Platform.
  3. Pfizer Inc. What Makes an RNA Vaccine Different from a Conventional Vaccine?
  4. Rajaneesh K. Gopinath. 2021. Laronde Bags $440 M in Series B to Advance Novel Medicines Using endless RNA Technology.
  5. Zaria Gorvett. 2021. How Effective Is A Single Vaccine Dose Against Covid-19?