Influenza Virus Reagents

Influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the family Orthomyxoviridae. They cause influenza epidemic (the flu), with symptoms similar to COVID-19 including fever, sore throat, and coughing. There are four types of influenza virus, known as influenza viruses A, B, C, and D. Influenza A virus and influenza B virus are the most common pathogenic virus types in humans, causing millions of infections worldwide every year. Notably, seasonal influenza A virus frequently changes to evade immunity through “antigenic drift”, which occurs in the genes of virus surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (H), and neuraminidase (N). The changes result in more than one hundred variant combinations, among which subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 are routinely reported to circulate globally.

The influenza A virus genome contains eight RNA segments encoding proteins essential for host infection, viral replication, virion assembly, and transmission. These proteins include three RNA polymerases, PB1, PB2, and PA that are fused with nucleoprotein (NP) to form nucleus complexes required for viral genome replication. The viral nucleus complex is encircled by a host-derived lipid bilayer envelope embedded with matrix protein (M1), ion channel protein (M2), neuraminidase (NA), surface glycoproteins (H and N), and nuclear export protein (NEP), assembling the viral particle for transmission. The non-structure protein NS1 circumvents the host immune response for viral production to occur.

Leadgene has established a reputation for providing raw materials for COVID-19 rapid test devices. We have now expanded the existing catalog with the release of a series of influenza virus antibodies and proteins for developing assay tools to detect both influenza A virus and influenza B virus. These reagents mark another Leadgene’s milestone to support diagnostics of infectious diseases.